To all noble kin we now present, That all consider graciously The thought, the mind, and the intent Who loves the East most faithfully.
Her heart of service to you proffer’d With right good will full honestly, Refuse it not, since it is offer’d, But take it to you gentlely.
Far to travel, to run, to ride, She undertakes it pleasantly; Bid her to go, straight she doth glide At your commandement humbly.
Audrye Benyet now we doth entreat Companion be, not secretly Silver Crescent Order comes to greet She who has served all steadfastly.
Amid this Great Northeastern War The passing year marked fifty-three Our Grant this day shall be abject: Therefore accept it lovingly.
On June’s fourteenth day assuredly, Since this so much we do desire, Reward Our servant liberally. For all her service and her hire.
Assigned by Eastern Royalty Emperor Brennan Empress Caoilfhionn
Calligraphy by Thyra Eiriksdottir. Illumination by Agatha Wanderer. Words from Sir Thomas Wyatt’s “The Heart and Service” adapted by Aneleda Falconbridge.
BASE SELECTION “The Heart and Service” Sir Thomas Wyatt – 1503-1542
This work seemed perfect as a starting point, as even its title provides appropriate context for Audrye’s work! I wanted to stay true to the feel and form, and as the piece was requested to be relatively short, it was a good poetic style to use to accommodate that request. It is 147 words, including the signature line.
The typical form for this piece seems to be loosely based on rhyme royal with lines of varying syllables and matched rhymes. A (9 syl) B (8 syl) A (9 syl) B (8 syl)
Sir Thomas Wyatt –1503–1542
“Born in Kent, England, Sir Thomas Wyatt was an ambassador to France and Italy for King Henry VIII. Wyatt’s travels abroad exposed him to different forms of poetry, which he adapted for the English language — most notably, the sonnet. Rumored to be Anne Boleyn’s lover, he spent a month in the Tower of London until Boleyn’s execution for adultery. Many consider his poem “Whoso List to Hunt” to be about Boleyn.”
+ Ego Matilda regina Orientis consensi et subscripsi
*The Lord is my Light, with “Dominus” abbreviated. (Dreda) ** Psalm 18:11 http://vulgate.org/ot/psalms_18.htm
Isabel Chamberlain’s Completed Scroll, with words by Aneleda Falconbridge and interlinear text by Alidreda de Tamwurthe.
Artistic inspiration is Vespasian Psalter, believed to be the first Latin-to-English translation of the Psalms (into Anglo-Saxon) written, it is thought, in the second quarter of the eighth century. The document features an abbreviated version of Psalm 26 (27).
My goals were to have the document look like the original as much as possible.
The text has nearly the same number of lines and nearly the same number of capital letters as the original.
The top image can remain exactly as on the extant. The small letters above will turn into the date of the award.
ABOVE the Latin, as with the extant document, is the text translated to early English/Anglo-Saxon by Mistress Aildreda de Tamwurthe, who is amazing. Then Mistress Isabel Chamberlain put the whole thing together. It was a labor of love.
Dreda’s interlinear text in Anglo-Saxon, as sent to Isabel.
Latin-English Study Bible: Vulgatæ Editionis
Latin Vulgate text, English translation (CPDV), and translation commentary. Ronald L. Conte Jr., translator and editor
In the year of the Society 53, April 7 DNSILLUMINATIOMEA
All Peers, Nobles, and Gentles We hear the voice of the people. I give you at the request of the Order of the Pelican my loyal Estgaraet Hrofiscester. Straight and strong and willing to help everyone. He built roads, many, keeps the peace, serves the people. They understand the works of Estgar and the work of his hands. The man is good. More precious than gold and precious stones: and sweeter than honey and the honeycomb. Give him according to his works. Render to Estgar his reward. We acknowledge the dignity of our Estagr at our court in the Shire of Quintavia. Great is his name in many lands. He is a Pelican. + I Ivan King of the East agree and subscribe + I Matilde Queen of the East agree and subscribe
Aneleda’s Latin Text:
LIII anno societatis VII Aprilis DNSILLUMINATIOMEA
Omnibus paribusnobilibusgentilibus A voce et a populusaudi nos. Do tibi tuæque ad pelecānōrummeo fidelissimo Estgarus Hrofiscestri. Rect et fortis et patiens Adiutor omnis. Construxit itineribus multis, custodit pacem, serves populus. Quoniam intellegunt opera Estgarum et opus manuum. Ipse virbonum. Desiderabilia super aurum et lapidem pretiosum multum et dulciora super mel et favum redundantem. Redde ipsisretributionem. Da Estgarus secundumipsis opera. Dignitatemque agnoscimus nostrorum Estagrum apud aulam nostram in villa Quintavia. admirábile est nomen eius in multis eius terras Ipse vir pelecānum est. + Ego Ivanus rex Oreintalum consensi et subscripsi + Ego Matilde regina Oreintalum consensi et subscripsi
Steffan’s Edits to the Latin Text:
LIII AS VII Apr DNSILLUMINATIOMEA
Omnibus paribus nobilibus et gentilibus Vocem populi audimus Vobis damus secundum postulationem Ordinis Pelicani nostrum fidelissimum Estgar de Hroficester. Rectus et fortis est et propensus omnes juvare. Construxit multas vias, conservit pacem, servavit populum. Intellegunt opera Estgari et opera manuum. Hic vir bonus est. Desiderabilia super aurum et lapidem pretiosum multum et dulciora super mel et favum redundantem.* Damus secundum sua opera. Reddimus ad Estgarum commodum justum. Dignitatem agnoscimus nostri Estgari apud aulam nostram in Scira Quintaviae. Magnum est nomen in multis terris. Pelicanus est. + Ego Ivanus rex Orientis consensi et subscripsi + Ego Matilda regina Orientis consensi et subscripsi
TO all peers, nobles and gentles We hear the voice of the people We give to you, according to the petition of the Order of the Pelican Our most faithful Estgar of Hroficester Straight and strong he is and willing to help all. He has built many roads, conserved the peace, served and protected the people. They recognize Estgar’s works and the works of his hands. This one is a good man. More precious than gold and precious stones And sweeter than honey and the honeycomb. We give according to his works. We render to Estgar his proper reward. We acknowledge the dignity of our Estgar among our shire of Quintavia. Great is his name in many lands He is a Pelican. + I Ivan King of the East agree and subscribe + I Matilde Queen of the East agree and subscribe
Vīsiō ad orbam per gratia artis.*
Audite verbis Ivan et Matilde que regis regineque regnum orientalis.
Scite quotd his litteris agnoscimus virtutem dignitatemque subjecti nostrorum Gnaea Celera.
Celear ultro meretur quam ob rem ametur; ita dapsiliter suos amicos alit.*
Vitriarius artificium suum supremum optumum adpellat. Creare pulchras creterras, vitrum lepistas. Nulla dies sine artēs.*
Ergo Celera consocias cum consortium fibula argentum. Extollimus et assignamus ei ordonis domina et beneficium armis [____blazon________]. Fit manibus nostris in IX die Decembris anno societatis LLI epulāribus baronia Bhakailia festum adventi.
She sees the world through love of art.*
Pay heed to the words of Ivan and Matilde, Tsar and Tsaritsa of the East Kingdom.
Know that by these letters we recognize the worth and dignity of our subject Gnaea Celera.
Celera earns of herself the merit of being loved; so abundantly does she nourish her friends.*
The glassmaker calls on her art, the all-highest and good. She creates beautiful bowls and glass goblets. She has not a day without art.*
Therefore, we join Celera with the Order of the Silver Brooch.
We extole her and commit her to the rank of lady and grant to [him/her] all rights to the arms [______blazon________]. Done by our hands on the 9 day of December, in the year of the society 52 at the Yule Feast in the Barony of Bhakail.
*adapted from fragments of poems by Gnaeus Naevius
This was written to be presented in either long-paragraph or short paragraph style in the scroll. Calligraphy and Illumination was done by by Mari Clock. It has 86 words in Latin and138 in the English translation.
One of the great benefits of being a wordwright is that I get to write words of praise and recognition for people who are special to me. Sir Colin contacted me with news that Kennimathor Giersson would be elevated to the Order of Chivalry at Birka and invited me to write the words to the scroll Master Ed MacGuyver would create. I leapt at the chance, because Kennimathor is very special to me. He was one of the Eastern Unbelted Champions from my time as bardic champion, a dear friend, and I had the great honor to be his consort for an Eastern Crown Tourney one fall. It was one of my SCA highlights and so to be able to tell his story this way was, in many ways, a gift to me as much as to him.
I wanted to respect his Norse persona and asked Their Majesties if I could write a nontraditional scroll that they would certify rather than sign. I tried to write of Kennimathor as if his knighting was one of the sagas I’ve read, which have blunt narrative and then poetry. I used some common kennings and created others as I needed them. I chose to feature a verse from the Hávamál that has special meaning to me and would resonate with Kennimathor as well.
I was also given the honored position of speaking for him at his knighting as the representative of the Order of the Laurel. I called attention to that verse as well, and focused on a theme that art requires protectors who will defend it, uphold it, create it, and be inspired by it.
I also got to help name an amazing sword. Ulfgir the Nice (Jamie Lundell) created a sword for the occasion and we worked together to name it. First, Ulfgir asked people about what to name a Norse sword and Ken took the bait and told him “vengence”. I took that and researched Norse weapons names in ancient literature. Master Friderikr helped me clarify some thoughts and I settled on honoring the Norse god of revenge, Víðarr, with the weapon, naming it “Víðursnaturr” or Víðarr’s gift.
The text I created for Sir Kennimathor is below:
Requested to the law rock by King Brion and Anna, the Queen he served, Njal Kennimathor Geirsson Virtanen went to see them. It was Þorri*, the month of men, deep in winter’s grasp. At his approach, the Ring-givers spoke to the people of this oak-limbed warrior, as beautiful and dangerous as winter’s ice. Kennimathor was a son of the northland, raised upon the field of battle. He was rich with kin whose loyalty shone like arm rings.
His skill at eagle-feeding brought notice from the king’s þegns* who said that Kennimathor should be added to their war band. The rulers agreed and gave him a Patent of Arms marked with his sigils: Per saltire sable and argent, two Thor’s hammers inverted and two spears counterchanged. Others brought gifts – a strip of snow-colored leather, a pair of shining spurs, a chain wrought of gold that had been worn by his ancestors, and a fine wool cloak from his kinswomen. His kinsman, Colin, gave him a sword made by Ulfgir who called it Víðursnatur.* When he possessed these things, he was pronounced a member of the Order of Chivalry. His last gifts were stout blows but he returned all save the one given him by King Brion.
An ancient verse was then invoked —
“Then he began to thrive and wisdom to get. He grew and well he was. Each word led him onto another word, each deed to another deed.”*
Thus was he sent into the world.
Brion and Anna set their marks on all Thing-words at the Birka Marketplace in the Barony of Stonemarche, the outpost where Kennimathor had long served. It was day 28 in the month and the year of the Society was LI.
Their names are signed here, proving that this is true.
The sword was named Víðursnaturr = Víðarr’s gift, after Víðarr, the Norse god of revenge. Þorri = The time of late jaunary / early february þegns = seasoned warriors hirðmaðr = follower of a king or earl
Þá nam ek frævask ok fróðr vera ok vaxa ok vel hafask,
orð mér af orði
orðs leitaði, verk mér af verki
Adrienne d’Evreus is a marvelously science-minded artist. I was invited to create words for her induction into the Order of the Maunche. Her Laurel, Mistress Isabel Chamberlain, lives far off, in another kingdom now, and so the scroll had some transit required! The desired piece required charter text, which is most appropriate for her persona. After a fair amount of looking and tossing a lot of sources, I decided that I’d use the “The Statute of Laborers, 1351” as the base of the text. The language has a great sound to it but it’s actually a somewhat harsh document. (You can learn about the statue here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Labourers_1351).
“The Statute of Labourers, was issued after the great plague of the Black Death, which raged in Europe from 1347 to 1349. The same fields remained to be tilled, the same manual labour to be performed; but a large proportion of the labourers had died, and the rest could command what wages they pleased. Edward III, to stop this evil, issued this rather Draconian decree.” (– Henderson, Ernest F., Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages / London : George Bell and Sons, 1896.)
I adapted it heavily to keep the quality of the language and some of the themes, especially parts related to artists, and included my own riff on things as I listed items appropriate to her art and research projects, found on her blog. My goal was to have about 500 words. When done, it was 599 but I really liked it, so I sent Isabell it and an edited one. She chose the larger work to use in the scroll.
Their Royal Majesties Brion and Anna, from whom all Eastern powers flow, direct to the assembled members of the Court greeting. Because a great part of the people, and especially the of noble servants represented by the Order of the Maunche, have so suggested and ordered the consideration of the one named Adrienne d’Evreus, We, considering it is our honor and duty to recognize those skilled in the arts, have held deliberation and treaty concerning this with the prelates and nobles and other learned people sitting by us; by whose consentient counsel we have seen fit to ordain: that said Adrienne d’Evreus, be joined into the Order of the Maunche, to be recognised as such by every man and woman of our kingdom of the East, and to those beyond our borders even into the heart of the Knowne World, of whatever condition, whether bond or free, elder or younger, servant or noble, as one who has been bound to serve that Art which has retained her service for so many years preceding.
Provided, that in thus retaining her service, that she may be given fair reign to work her alchemy for the good of the court and kingdom, to serve without hindrance or interference, and to be granted access to all natural goods that she may require, without prosecution for poaching in the Royal lands, including but not limited to, buckthorn and iris, elderberry and oyster, walnut and oak gall, and any other such provisions as the lands may provide. Further, she is given Our permit to trade without molestation or impediment such alchemical and exotic supplies as may come from the great Ports of the Knowne World, including but not limited to, lead, alum, ochre, saffron, woad, indigo, lye, bones, woods of all lands, feathers, quills, nibs, pens, and other items which she may receive. Furthermore, and no matter what odor her concoction hath wrought, she may grind and soak, wash and rinse, pluck and work, elutriate and levigate at her will and whim.
And if a reaper or mower, fencer or archer, herald or minstrel, piper or tinker, mason or troubadour, other workman or servant, of whatever standing or condition he be, who is retained in the service of any one, do depart her from her selected service, without her leave, permission, or reasonable cause, he shall undergo the penalty of imprisonment, and let no one, under the same penalty, presume to receive or retain such a one in his service.
Likewise saddlers, skinners, white-tawers, cordwainers, tailors, smiths, carpenters, masons, tilers, shipwrights, carters and all other artisans and labourers, must be set to support her, and so they may recognize her, we hereby Grant her Arms that she alone may use: Azure, a fleur-de-lys argent, a bordure gules.
And if the lords of the towns or manors presume of themselves or through their servants in any way to act contrary to this our present ordinance, then in the Counties, Baronies and Provinces suit shall be brought against them for the triple penalty which shall be to live bereft of vermillion, ochre, cochineal, lapis lazuli, vergaut, malachite, saffron, verdigris, turmeric, gypsum, lamp black, Tyrian purple, malachite and their books of hours shall be left ever empty.
By the Powers of the Crowns of the East and in the support of the Society, it is thus ordained on the Feast of Saint Odo of Beauvais at the Royal Court of King Brion and Queen Anna at the Marketplace at Birka in the Barony of Stonemarche on the 28th day of January in the Year of the Society LI.
King Brion | Queen Anna
The Statute of Laborers; 1351
(“Statutes of the Realm,” vol. i. p. 307.)
Edward by the grace of God etc. to the reverend father in Christ William, by the same grace archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, greeting. Because a great part of the people and especially of the, workmen and servants has now died in that pestilence, some, seeing the straights of the masters and the scarcity of servants, are not willing to serve unless they receive excessive wages, and others, rather than through labour to gain their living, prefer to beg in idleness: We, considering the grave inconveniences which might come from the lack especially of ploughmen and such labourers, have held deliberation and treaty concerning this with the prelates and nobles and other learned men sitting by us; by whose consentient counsel we have seen fit to ordain: that every man and woman of our kingdom of England, of whatever condition, whether bond or free, who is able bodied and below the age of sixty years, not living from trade nor carrying on a fixed craft, nor having of his own the means of living, or land of his own with regard to the cultivation of which he might occupy himself, and not serving another,if he, considering his station, be sought after to serve in a suitable service, he shall be bound to serve him who has seen fit so to seek after him; and he shall take only the wages liveries, meed or salary which, in the places where he sought to serve, were accustomed to be paid in the twentieth year of our reign of England, or the five or six common years next preceding. Provided, that in thus retaining their service, the lords are preferred before others of their bondsmen or their land tenants: so, nevertheless that such lords thus retain as many as shall be necessary and not more; and if any man or woman, being thus sought after in service, will not do this, the fact being proven by two faithful men before the sheriffs or the bailiffs of our lord the king, or the constables of the town where this happens to be done,-straightway through them, or some one of them, he shall be taken and sent to the next jail, and there he shall remain in strict custody until he shall find surety for serving in the aforesaid form.
And if a reaper or mower, or other workman or servant, of whatever standing or condition he be, who is retained in the service of any one, do depart from the said service before the end of the term agreed, without permission or reasonable cause, he shall undergo the penalty of imprisonment, and let no one, under the same penalty, presume to receive or retain such a one in his service. Let no one, moreover, pay or permit to be paid to any one more wages, livery, meed or salary than was customary as has been said; nor let any one in any other manner exact or receive them, under penalty of paying to him who feels himself aggrieved from this, double the sum that has thus been paid or promised, exacted or received and if such person be not willing to prosecute, then it (the sum) is to be given to any one of the people who shall prosecute in this matter; and such prosecution shall take place in the court of the lord of the place where such case shall happen. And if the lords of the towns or manors presume of themselves or through their servants in any way to act contrary to this our present ordinance, then in the Counties, Wapentakes and Trithings suit shall be brought against them in the aforesaid form for the triple penalty (of the sum) thus promised or paid by them or the servants; and if perchance, prior to the present ordinance any one shall have covenanted with any one thus to serve for more wages, he shall not be bound by reason of the said covenant to pay more than at another time was wont to be paid to such person; nay, under the aforesaid penalty he shall not presume to pay more.
Likewise saddlers, skinners, white-tawers, cordwainers, tailors, smiths, carpenters, masons, tilers, shipwrights, carters and all other artisans and labourers shall not take for their labour and handiwork more than what, in the places where they happen to labour, was customarily paid to such persons in the said twentieth year and in the other common years preceding, as has been said; and if any man take more, he shall be committed to the nearest jail in the manner aforesaid.
Likewise let butchers, fishmongers, hostlers, brewers, bakers, pullers and all other vendors of any victuals, be bound to sell such victuals for a reasonable price, having regard for the price at which such victuals are sold in the adjoining places: so that such vendors may have moderate gains, not excessive, according as the distance of the places from which such victuals are carried may seem reasonably to require; and if any one sell such victuals in another manner, and be convicted of it in the aforesaid way, he shall pay the double of that which he received to the party injured, or in default of him, to another who shall be willing to prosecute in this behalf; and the mayor and bailiffs of the cities and Burroughs, merchant towns and others, and of the maritime ports and places shall have power to enquire concerning each and every one who shall in any way err against this, and to levy the aforesaid penalty for the benefit of those at whose suit such delinquents shall have been convicted; and in case that the same mayor and bailiffs shall neglect to carry out the aforesaid, and shall be convicted of this before justices to be assigned by us, then the same mayor and bailiffs shall be compelled through the same justices, to pay to such wronged person or to another prosecuting in his place, the treble of the thing thus sold, and nevertheless, on our part too, they shall be grievously punished.
And because many sound beggars do refuse to labour so long as they can live from begging alms, giving themselves up to idleness and sins, and, at times, to robbery and other crimes-let no one, under the aforesaid pain of imprisonment presume, under colour of piety or alms to give anything to such as can very well labour, or to cherish them in their sloth, so that thus they may be compelled to labour for the necessaries of life.
Source:Henderson, Ernest F.
Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages
London : George Bell and Sons, 1896.